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There are 331 entries in this glossary.
All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Term Definition
A falsis principiis proficisci
Latin Expression: To set forth from false principles.
A fortiori
Latin Expression: From the stronger. Loosely, "even more so" or "with even stronger reason". Often used to lead from a less certain proposition to a more evident corollary.
A posteriori
Latin expression: From the latter. Based on observation (i.e., empirical knowledge), the reverse of a priori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something that is known after a proof has been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something known from experience.
A priori
Latin Expression: From the former. Presupposed independent of experience, the reverse of a posteriori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something that is known or postulated before a proof has been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something is supposed without empirical evidence. In everyday speech, it denotes something occurring or being known before the event.
Accredited Appraiser Canadian Institute designation from the Appraisal Institute of Canada.
Abusus non tollit usum
Latin Expression: Misuse does not remove use. Just because something is misused doesn't mean it can't be used correctly.
Accipe quam primum, brevis est occasio lucri
Latin expression: Accipe quam primum, brevis est occasio lucri "Act now, the chances of success last not" Also: "We must beat the iron while it is hot".
Accrued Depreciation (Dépréciation accumulée)
The difference between an improvement’s cost new and its value as of any given date. Depreciation is defined as a loss in utility and hence values from any cause. There are three (3) types of depreciation: physical deterioration, functional obsolescence and economic obsolescence. Depreciation can be measured in many ways, such as: - Depreciation Tables: (variant from Sales comparison method) elaborated throughout commercial Cost Manuals (ex: Marshall & Swift). - Sales Comparison Method: based on sales comparable to the subject building. The appraiser determines for each sale the sale price allocation to the building which is then deducted from the estimated reproduction or replacement cost new of building. - Breakdown Method: where each cause of depreciation is analyzed and measured separately for each of the components of the construction based on the appraiser's observations, experience and judgment. The appraiser then totals the estimates to derive a lump-sum figure that is deducted from the estimated reproduction or replacement cost of building. - Economic Age-Life Method: where the ratio between the effective age and total economic life of a building is applied to the cost of improvements. - Allocation Method: which allows the appraiser to identify, to analyze and to measure each cause of depreciation separately. The sum of all types of depreciations (i.e.: physical deterioration, functional obsolescence and economic obsolescence) is then deducted from the estimated reproduction or replacement cost of building.
Acquittal or Quittance (Quittance)
Written release from which a Creditor declares the debtor is free of any debt, obligation, or penalty towards him. Withdrawal of all mortgage and financial charges from a property.
Acre (Acre)
A measure of land equalling 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet.
Active Asset
An asset that is used by a business in its daily or routine operations. Active assets can be tangible, such as buildings or equipment, or intangible, such as patents or copyrights.
Actual value (Valeur réelle)
According to article 43 of An Act Respecting Municipal Taxation, the actual value of a unit of assessment is its exchange value in the free and open market, that is, the price most likely to be paid at a sale by agreement made in the following conditions: (1) the vendor and the purchaser are willing, respectively, to sell and to purchase the unit of assessment, and they are not compelled to do so; and (2) the vendor and the purchaser are reasonably informed of the condition of the unit of assessment, of the use that can most likely be made of it and of conditions in the property market.
Ad hoc
Latin Expression: To this. Generally means "for this", in the sense of improvised on the spot or designed for only a specific, immediate purpose.
Ad impossibilia nemo tenetur
Latin expression: Ad impossibilia nemo tenetur "to the impossible no one is required.
Ad Valorem
A Latin phrase meaning "according to value". Usually used in connection with real estate taxation.
Latin Expression: Thing to be added. An item to be added, especially a supplement to a book. The plural is addenda.
Administrator of Co-owners' Association (Administrateur)
Representative of co-owners Union designated by the general meeting of the joint co-owners of condominium management.
An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the author, who is called the affiant or deponent, and witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin for "he has declared upon oath".
Latin Expression: Things to be done. Originally comparable to a to-do list, an ordered list of things to be done. Now generalized to include any planned course of action. The singular, agendum (thing that must be done), is rarely used.
Air Rights (Droits aériens)
The rights in real property to the reasonable use of the air space above the surface of the land.
Latin Expression: At another time, otherwise. An assumed name or pseudonym. Similar to alter ego, but more specifically referring to a name, not to a "second self".
Alluvium (Alluvions)
The gradual increase of the earth on a shore of an ocean or bank of a stream resulting from the action of the water (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against").
Amortization (Amortissement)
The deduction of capital expenses over a specific period of time usually over the asset's life. It is not a cash outflow. It is an accounting statement of the lessening of the potential of service of an asset caused by wear, obsolescence, or any other causes.
An act respecting municipal taxation (Loi sur la fiscalité municipale)
R.S.Q., chapter F-2.1
Annual Report (Rapport annuel)
Audited document required by the AMF and sent to a public company's or mutual fund's shareholders at the end of each fiscal year, reporting the financial results for the year (including the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and description of company operations) and commenting on the outlook for the future.
Apartment building (Immeuble d’appartements)
Collective housing building divided into apartment units where common services are offered.
Appellant (Appelant)
The person who takes an appeal of a decision of a court or other decision-making body.
Applicant (Requérant)
Person who applies to the court for a remedy or relief set out in an Application.
Application (Requête)
A request of the court to make an order for the remedy or relief requested.
Application for Administrative Review (Demande de révision administrative)
Form required in relation with the contents of the assessment roll toward the accuracy, existence or absence of an entry on the roll in virtue of The Municipal Taxation Act, sections 124 to 138.4.
Appraisal Methods (Méthodes en évaluation foncière)
When appraising a property, and depending on the type of property, data is sought in the market on such factors as sales and/or offerings of similar improved properties or parcels of vacant pieces of land, as well as current prices at the appraisal date for construction materials and labor, rentals of similar properties and their operating expenses, and current rates of return on income producing properties. From this data, a value may be developed both for the land and its improvements, as a whole. When applying the three (3) recognised methods in real estate appraisal, we tend to analyse the data in our possession and estimate the probable market value of the subject property. These methods are as follows: the Cost Approach, the Income Approach and the Direct Comparison Approach.
Argument (Plaidoyer)
The address or presentation to the court by the parties with the aim of persuading the court to make a decision in their favour; the argument is not evidence; may be in written form contained in a brief submitted to the court.
Argumentum ad consequentiam
Latin Expression: Argument or reasoning, inference, appeal, proof to the consequence. Commonly used in the names of logical arguments and fallacies.
Argumentum e contrario
An argumentum e contrario (Latin: "appeal from the contrary" or "argument based on the contrary") denotes any proposition that is argued to be correct because it is not proven by a certain case. It is the opposite of the analogy. Arguments e contrario are often used in the legal system, as a way to solve problems not currently covered by a certain system of laws. Although it might be used as a logical fallacy, arguments e contrario are not by definition fallacies
Arms Length Transaction (Transaction à distance)
Transaction in which the two parties are unconnected and have no overt common interests. Such a transaction most often reflects the true market value of a property.
Combining of 2 or more abutting parcels of land.
Assessment Roll (Rôle d'évaluation)
The assessment roll, which represents the inventory of all properties in a given jurisdiction, indicates the value of each property on the basis of its actual or commercial value, within the meaning of articles 43 to 45 of the L.F.M. It covers all the residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, agricultural and vacant properties. The values which are registered take account of the real market values on July 1st of the second fiscal year preceding the first for which it is conceived.
Assessment Unit (Unité d'évaluation)
In municipal assessment, is an assessment unit the largest possible group of immoveables which fulfil the following conditions: (1) the land or pieces of land belongs to a same owner or a group of undivided owners; (2) the pieces land are contiguous or would be if they were not separated by a river; (3) if the immoveables are used, they are in a same predominant end; and (4) immoveables can normally and on short-term be sold but as a whole and not in parts, considering the most likely use that can be made.
Assessor (Assesseur)
A person with technical expertise called in Court to assist and advise a judge or magistrate and in many instances to act as surrogate. Usually selected for special knowledge in a particular area.
Asset (Actif)
A resource with economic value that a corporation or an individual owns or controls with the expectation that it will provide future benefit.
Assumption (Hypothèse)
That which is taken to be true.
Atqui, e lotio est
Latin expression: Atqui, e lotio is "Eh Yes! "it comes from urine" response of Vespasian to his son Titus complaining about the taxes on urinals. See: Pecunia non olet "Money has no smell".
Attic storey building (Construction à étage mansardé)
Building with several superimposed levels, the upper is composed of finished or ready to be finished rooms in the attic with slopped ceilings. The attic thus constituted generally shows, but not necessarily, to have an inferior area than that of the underlying floor.
The general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, enterprise, project or product. Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information; also to provide an assessment of a system's internal control. The goal of an audit is to express an opinion on the person / organization/system (etc) in question, under evaluation based on work done on a test basis.
British thermal unit. Measure unit for thermal energy. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. This measure is widely used to designate the power of air conditioners. To convert a power from BTU to watt divide the Btu power by 3 414,5 to obtain the power in kWh. (1 Kwh = 3 414,5 BTU)
Bad Debt or Outstanding Debts (Mauvaises créances ou créances douteuses)
Estimated accounts receivable amount shown in an income statement (profit and loss account) as irrecoverable.
Bad Debt Reserve (Réserve pour mauvaises créances)
(See: Bad Debts or Outstanding Debts)
Bailiff (Huissier)
Bailiff, sheriff's deputy employed for the execution of judgements (eg, seizure of judgement debtor's goods, repossession of chattels, and evictions); also, an officer of the court having custody of prisoners under arraignment. Individuals may be appointed to carry on business as bailiffs in counties where they are needed for the public convenience.
Balance Sheet (Bilan)
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of a company. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year.
Bank Guaranty (Garantie bancaire)
A bank guarantee is a bank's commitment to advance funds to a third party should the bank’s client default on the guaranteed obligations.
Bank Rate (Taux d'escompte)
The minimum rate at which the Bank of Canada extends short-term advances to chartered banks and other financial institutions members of the Canadian Payments Association. It is the reference rate for the preferred rates fixed by the financial institutions.
Bankruptcy (Faillite)
A bankruptcy is triggered when a company can no longer meet its short-term commitments and thus faces a liquidity crisis. Bankruptcy happens because a company does not make enough profits, and not because of significant debts.
Base Rate (Taux directeur)
Base rates are interest rates of the day fixed by the Central Bank of a country or a monetary Union, which enables it to regulate economic activity. These rates are those remunerated by banks and financial institutions for their cash surpluses placed by the Central Bank, and the rate at which can borrow these same economic agents of the Central Bank (refinancing rate and discount rate). These rates allow, by fixing the "cost of money" on monetary market, to regulate economic investment and thus encourage the economic activity in periods of low growth, or slowdown the over-investment (in unprofitable projects) during periods of inflationary overheating. Base rates thus influence growth and exchange rate. An increase in the base rates can lead to a new appreciation of the relevant currency.
Board of Directors (Conseil d'administration)
The primary mandate of the CA is to manage the affairs of the union and to exercise all powers necessary to that end. It has essentially the union’s executive. The duties and obligations of the Board are: the conservation of the building, coordination and management of common areas, the protection of collective rights, maintain records of ownership and respect for the declaration of condominium.
Bona Fide
In good faith; without fraud or deceit; authentic.
Bond (Obligation)
A certificate received for a loan made to a company or government. In return, the issuer of the bond promises to pay the lender interest at a set rate and to repay the loan on a set date.
Book Value (Valeur comptable)
The book value of an asset is the value it is given in the account books of the company that owns it. The book value corresponds to the original cost of the asset less its accrued amortization.
Brief Historic of Municipal Legislation (Histoire abrégée de la législation municipale)
In 1855, there is the creation, through a general law, of the institution of the municipality (Baldwin Law). At that time, there were already two levels: Parishes/Villages/Cities. Nowadays: local municipality and township equivalent today to the regional municipality (MRC), with certain responsibilities inter-municipal). In 1870, adoption of a municipal code (that still exists today) for the rural world. In 1876, adoption of the Act of the cities and towns for the urban world (Cities and towns are not distinct nowadays). These two laws conferred different powers (ex. aqueduct in the cities, agricultural inspectors in the countryside). Often amended since, there are many connections but also fewer distinctions although less and less, we predict the overhaul of both laws into one. Institutions created to control municipal institutions: In 1918, creation of the Minister of Municipal Affairs. In 1932, creation of the Municipal Commission (administrative and quasi-judiciary organism surveying the application of certain laws). In 1971, creation of the Bureau de révision de l’évaluation foncière (BREF), now integrated to the Tribunal administratif du Québec (TAQ). Several cities have a Charter (old meaning) including Montreal, which may confer some additional special powers. These are so-called "private", laws which are not of general application. The rule nowadays is that a municipality is governed by its Charter interpreted strictly and otherwise by relevant law interpreted more broadly, to which the Charter is often referred to. There are also patent letters, which are based on a slightly different model.
Building / Physical link (Construction / lien physique)
Manner in which the main building of an evaluation unit is physically linked to other adjacent buildings. Depending on the physical link that connects the building to the other unit, the main building is detached, semi-detached, in-row, or integrated.
Bungalow Building (Construction de plain-pied)
A bungalow is a type of house, with varying meanings across the world. Common features to many (but not all) of these definitions include being detached, low-rise and the use of verandas. The term originated in India, deriving from the Gujarati બંગલો (baṅgalo), which in turn derives from Hindi बंगला (baṅglā), meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style". Such houses were traditionally small, only one story and detached, and had a wide veranda.
The Québec cadastre shows all the properties of the province on a plan, and identifies them by a lot number. The plan indicates the dimensions, area, shape and position of a given property in relation to adjacent properties. The cadastre is a land register which consist of many plans and documents prepared by land surveyors.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation - CMHC (SCHL)
The National Housing Act (NHA) authorized Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) to operate a Mortgage Insurance Fund which protects NHA Approved Lenders from losses resulting from borrower default.
Canada Savings Bond - CSB (Obligations d'épargne du Canada - OEC)
A non-marketable security instrument issued by the Government of Canada, which is redeemable on demand by the registered owner(s), and which, after the first three months, pays interest up to the end of the month prior to cashing.
Cancellation (Radiation)
Cancellation arises from an entry to strike an earlier registration from a register. Cancellation is voluntary or, failing that, judicial; it may also be legal.
Capital (Capital)
Designates the entire financial means at the disposal of the company, which means the equity and the debt.
Capital Asset (Immobilisation)
All tangible property which cannot easily be converted into cash and which is usually held for a long period, including real estate, equipment, etc.
Capital Gain - or loss (Gain en capital - ou perte)
The amount by which an asset's selling price exceeds (gain)or not (loss) its initial purchase price. A realized capital gain is an investment that has been sold at a profit. An unrealized capital gain is an investment that hasn't been sold yet but would result in a profit if sold.
Capital Outlay (Mise de fonds)
A disbursement of money by buyer at the time of financing of a fixed asset. Portion of money deducted from the purchase price which determines the amount of financing required to complete the acquisition.
Capital Stocks (Capital-actions)
The book value of the outstanding shares of a corporation. The maximum number of shares authorized under the terms of a corporation's articles of incorporation.
Capitalisation (Actualisation)
Capitalisation of income means to forego receipt of it. It then becomes capital and begins itself to produce interest over subsequent periods.
Carryback Loan (Balance de vente)
A loan agreement in which the seller of a property provides financing in aids for the completion of the sale, often in combination with an assumable mortgage.
Central City (Ville-centre)
Any local municipality whose territory corresponds to a census agglomeration as defined by Statistics Canada or any local municipality whose territory is included in such agglomeration that emerged historically as the most prominent in the urban area and whose population is generally the highest among the metropolitan area.
Certificate of Deposit (Certificat de dépôt)
The certificate of deposit is a time deposit represented by a dematerialised negotiable debt security in the form of a bearer certificate or order issued by an authorised financial institution.
Certificate of Location (Certificat de localisation)
The location certificate is prepared by the land surveyor. It is part of the record titles of the property. Its main use is to place buildings on the land and demonstrate that they cause no encroachment and no resulting right-to-land substantially taints property ownership. It will also state compliance with municipal standards.
A type of writ, an “extraordinary remedy” used by a superior court to quash or cancel an order or decision made without jurisdiction by a lower court or tribunal.
Chronological Age (or Actual Age or Historical Age)
The amount of time that has passed since a building or other structure was built.
Closed Mortgage (Hypothèque à échéance fixe)
A mortgage agreement that cannot be prepaid, renegotiated or refinanced before maturity, except according to its terms.
Closing Costs (Frais de clôture)
Various expenses associated with purchasing a property. The standard closing costs include, but are not limited to, legal/notary fees and disbursements, property land transfer taxes, as well as adjustments for prepaid property taxes or condominium common expenses, if any.
Code of Ethics (Code de déontologie)
A set of rules governing the behaviour provided for either by law or by market regulations, or else by forced use of a profession that has established the Code.
Commercial Building (Immeuble commercial)
Building that is constructed or adapted to house shops or commercial services.
Common Areas (Aires communes)
The common areas represent all parts of building and land that are not stipulated to be private parts in the declaration of co-ownership. These are the common property of all co-owners, so undivided, and serve, unless otherwise agreed, to their common use.
Common Areas with Restricted Use (Parties communes à usage restreint)
These are the parts of building or land which are the joint property of all co-owners (Common parts), but are for the exclusive use of one or more co-owners, if the case. For example, balconies, roof terraces and windows are often common restricted parts.
Common Charges (Charges communes)
Also called "Common condominium fees", they are the contribution of each co-owner. The CA contributes the owners after determining how much money is needed to meet costs arising from the ownership and operation of the building, and the amounts payable to the fund.
Common Law
The system of law that evolved from the decisions of the English royal courts of justice since the Norman Conquest (1066). Today the common law, considered more broadly to include statutes as well as decisions, applies in most English-speaking countries, including all Canadian provinces except Québec.
Common wall (Mur mitoyen)
Wall resting on the property line between two adjoining buildings, where each of the respective owners shares the rights and ownership of the common wall.
Comparative Factor (Facteur comparatif)
Factor approved by the Ministère des Affaires municipales et des Régions et de l’Occupation du territoire du Québec (MAMROT) which, multiplied by the value entered on the roll, allows to establish a “standardized value” (value at 100%) at the reference date. The comparative factor can bring a comparable basis the assessments originating from different roles.
Construction Permit or Building Permit (Permis de construction)
A construction permit or building permit is an administrative document required in most jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures, and in some cases for major renovations. Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local building codes.
Consumer Price Index - CPI (Indice des prix à la consommation - IPC)
A measure of price movements produced by Statistics Canada and obtained by comparing the retail prices of a representative "shopping basket" of goods and services at two different points in time.
Contingent Rent (Loyer à contingence)
Rent that is not fixed from month to month, but varies according to the revenues of a tenant or concessionaire.
Convertible Mortgage (Hypothèque convertible)
Type of mortgage at fixed of variable rate offering similar advantages as a closed mortgage but that can be converted from short-term to long-term, at any time without charge on anticipated instalments.
Corporal Moveable or Tangible (Biens meubles corporels ou tangible)
Objects as set that has a physical form such as: animals, inanimate things, removable and transportable (household furniture, vehicles, etc.), artefacts, antiquities, jewelleries, precious stones, collectibles, machinery, etc.
Cost Approach (Méthode du coût)
The Cost Approach is based on the determination of the cost of replacing a property, with adjustments for depreciation and obsolescence. The value of the land, as if vacant, is then added to the depreciated value of the improvements to produce a total value. The Cost Approach is most pertinent to special use properties with little income orientation or marketplace attention. It is typically a good indication for new properties with minimal depreciation. However, it does not take into consideration investor criteria or operational risks and is therefore usually given the least consideration in the valuation process.
Cottage building (Construction à étages entiers)
The cottage is a building where the area of the upper floor is the same than that of the ground floor, where the upper has no slopped ceiling unless it is a cathedral ceiling.
Court of Quebec (Cour du Québec)
The Court of Québec is a court of first instance that has jurisdiction in civil, criminal and penal matters as well as in matters relating to young persons. It also has jurisdiction over administrative matters and appeals where provided for by law. The Court of Québec is made up of a maximum of 270 judges, appointed by the Government of Québec for life. It is under the direction of a chief judge assisted by a senior associate chief judge and four associate chief judges. Ten associate coordinating judges and eight assistant coordinating judges assist the chief judge and the senior associate chief judge in their duties.
Crawl Space (Vide sanitaire)
Narrow opening between the ground and the underside of a structure, not tall enough to permit standing but sufficient to give access as needed to wiring, plumbing, and other utilities.
Credit Line (Marge de crédit)
An arrangement in which a bank or vendor extends a specified amount of credit to a specified borrower for a specified time period. The credit line can be secured or not.
Creditor (Créancier)
A creditor is a party (e.g. person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim to the services of a second party. It is a person or institution to whom money is owed. The second party is frequently called a debtor or borrower. The first party is the creditor, which is the lender of property, service or money.
Curable Functional Obsolescence (Désuétude fonctionnelle curable)
Must be economically feasible to cure. May be from a deficiency or an excess.
Curable Physical Depreciation (Dépréciation physique curable)
Curable physical depreciation refers to items generally of deferred maintenance. The cost to cure this depreciation qualified as curable cannot be greater than the gained economic plus-value.
Dead-line (Échéance)
A time limit, as for payment of a debt or completion of an assignment.
Debt (Dette)
The dept designates a right detained by a person known as the creditor toward another person known as the debtor. The debtor is the obliged of the creditor. The object of the debt consists of an obligation to either give or to refrain to give. A company debt is the financing mode that represents money offered at its disposal by its creditors which has the contractually fixed remuneration and repayment date.
Debt Ratio (Ratio d'endettement)
Debt capital divided by total assets. This ratio will show how much the company relies on debt to finance assets.
Declaration of Co-Ownership (Déclaration de copropriété)
The declaration of co-ownership divides the property into fractions. It includes the act constituting the co-ownership, the by-laws of the immovable and a description of the fractions. The constituting act of co-ownership specifies the relative value of each fraction, indicating how that value was determined. It also determines, as a function of the relative value, the contribution of each fraction to the common expenses of the immovable, the contingency fund established by law and the number of votes attached to each fraction. The constituting act defines the destination or purpose of the immovable, i.e. the use the owners may make of it, as well as the destination of the private and common portions. The act also sets out the powers and duties of the board of directors of the syndicate and the general meeting of co-owners. A detailed by-law stipulates rules on the enjoyment, use and upkeep of the private and common portions. The by-laws also contain rules for the operation and administration of the co-ownership, in particular, the composition of the board of directors and the conditions relating to the office of administrator. The description of the fractions contains the cadastral description of the private portions and the common portions of the immovable. It also contains a description of the real rights affecting or existing in favour of the immovable
Declared Rent (Loyer contractuel)
Rent paid by a lessee to the landlord as stipulated on a lease and linked to the use of the premises or part of them.
Deed of Sale or Bill of Sale (Acte de vente)
The real estate deed of sale designate the final contract of sale of a real estate by which a seller agrees to sell and a buyer agrees to buy, under certain terms and conditions spelled out in writing in the document signed by both parties. The transaction becomes public as it is inscribed in the Land Register of Québec.
Depreciation (Dépréciation)
A loss in property value from any cause.
Derogation (Dérogation)
The partial repeal of a law, usually by a subsequent act that in some way diminishes its original intent or scope. Derogation is distinguishable from abrogation, which is the total annulment of a law.
Detached Building (Bâtiment détaché)
Refers to a building which has no common wall.
Developer (Lotisseur)
Legal or physical person that improves tract of land with subdivided parcels, and arranges for utilities and services, in order to sell the parcels or to build structures for rent and/or sale.
Discontinuance (Désistement)
The voluntary termination of litigation by a plaintiff who has elected not to pursue it or by both parties pursuant to a settlement.
Discounted Cash Flows (Actualisation des flux monétaires)
Discounting is the calculation of the present value of a future sum. Discounting is thus the inverse to capitalisation. Discounting makes it possible to compare sums received or paid out at different dates. Discounting is calculated with the required rate of return of the investor. The discounting formula runs as follows: Pv = Fv / (1 + i)n Where: Vn = Future cash flow or value Pv = Present value i = Discount rate or Rate of return on capital per period n = Number of periods that payment shall be differed
Discounting of bills of exchange (Escompte de traite)
Discounting of bills of exchange is a financing transaction wherein a company remits an unexpired commercial bill of exchange to the bank in return for an advance of the amount of the bill, less interest and fees.
Divided Co-Ownership (Copropriété divise)
The law provides for two types of co-ownership: divided and undivided. Divided co-ownership, as the name implies, permits the division of a building into fractions. A fraction may belong to one or more persons. Each owner of a fraction has the exclusive ownership of a private portion of the immovable and has an undivided right of ownership, that is, a share proportionate to the relative value of his fraction, in the common portions of the immovable. The common portions belong to all the co-owners. Each owner of a fraction may hypothecate it (give it as security) to guarantee the repayment of the sums borrowed to purchase it. Each hypothec is separate. Condominium owners are not affected by a neighbour’s hypothecary difficulties.
Dividend (Dividende)
Payment made by a corporation to its shareholder members. It is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders.
Dominant Tenement (Fonds dominant)
Where an easement is appurtenant, it will typically require the existence of two parcels of land, known as tenements. The dominant tenement is the land which benefits from an easement, while the servient tenement is the one which bears the burden of the easement.
Due Care (Diligence)
Degree of care that an ordinary and reasonable person would normally exercise, over his or her own property or under circumstances like those at issue. The concept of due care is used as a test of liability for negligence. Also called ordinary care or reasonable care.
Due Diligence Review (Vérification diligente)
A buyer or a successor has the right to have various areas of to the company verified by his own experts in order to determine if what the seller has said is true, if the goods are truly what he thinks he is buying, and if there are no hidden defects or lawsuits against the company, to name a few. The due diligence review usually covers the following areas: operations, intellectual property, goods, human resources, and the legal, accounting, tax, and environmental aspects.
Duties on transfers of immovables (Droit de mutation)
Duties on transfers of immovables is a tax collected by the municipality for the transfer of any immovable located within its territory under the provincial legislation. The rate of these duties is set as follows:  0,5% on that part of the basis of imposition which does not exceed $50,000  1% on that part of the basis of imposition which is in excess of $50,000 without exceeding $250,000  1,5% on that part of the basis of imposition which exceeds $250,000
Dwelling unit or Housing unit or Dwelling (Logement)
Place for housing purposes intended for a residential occupancy which is composed of a room or several adjoining rooms.
Earnings Statement (État des résultats)
An Earnings Statement is a standard financial document that summarizes a company's revenue and expenses for a specific period of time.
Easement (Servitude)
Burden imposed on a real property, the servient estate, in favor of another immovable, the dominant estate, belonging to a different owner.
Economic Life Span (Vie économique)
Economic life is the time period during which a construction contributes to the value of the property. Economic life can match the physical life of a construction or be less, but never more.
Economic Obsolescence (Désuétude économique)
Economic obsolescence is caused by external forces such as changes in neighbourhood land uses and governmental ordinances that affect full utilization of the property.
Economic Rent (Loyer économique)
Difference between what a factor of production (capital, land, labor) is earning, and what it could earn in the next best-paid employment.
Effective Age (or Apparent Age)
Age of an analogue building showing a utility, a state and an equivalent lifespan. The effective age may be longer or shorter than the chronological age depending on the degree of maintenance, of modernization and according the prevailing status of the market offer and demand.
Effective Gross Income (EGI)
Total potential income from property before any expenses are deducted but considering a deduction of a reserve for vacancies and bad debt.
Emphyteusis (Emphytéose)
Emphyteusis is the right which, for a certain time, grants a person the full benefit and enjoyment of an immovable owned by another provided he does not endanger its existence and undertakes to make constructions, works or plantations thereon that durably increase its value. Emphyteusis is established by contract or by will. The term of the emphyteusis shall be stipulated in the constituting act and be not less than 10 nor more than 100 years. If it is longer, it is reduced to 100 years.
Emphyteutic Lease (Bail emphytéotique)
(See: Emphyteutic Lessee)
Emphyteutic Lessee (Emphytéote)
The Emphyteutic Lessee is a quasi-owner of the real estate which he is leasing.
Encroachment (Empiètement)
An improvement that intrudes illegally on another's property.
General term for any claim or lien on a parcel of real property. These include: mortgages, deeds of trust, recorded abstracts of judgment, unpaid real property taxes, tax liens, easements and water or timber rights. While the owner has title, any encumbrance is usually on record and must be paid for at some point.
Equity (or Shareholders’ Equity)
Shareholders’ equity is the capital that incurs the risk of the business. This type of financial resource forms the cornerstone of the entire financial system. Its importance is such that shareholders providing it are granted decision-making powers and control over the business in various different ways. Shareholders’ equity is equal to the sum of capital increases by shareholders and annual net income for past years not distributed in the form of dividends plus the original share capital.
Escrow Contract (Convention de séquestre)
An item of value, money, or documents deposited with a third party to be delivered upon the fulfillment of a condition. A trust account held in the borrower's name to pay obligations such as property taxes and insurance premiums.
Estate (Succession)
The heritage of a deceased person.
Estate Freeze (Gel successoral)
When a company is sold or transferred, the shares of the owner-manager are valued, and this value is determined and set at a specific time. Following this, a new definition of the owner-manger’s shares and a redistribution of equity among the new owners of the company occurs. Several methods are used to institute a freeze and each method has its particularities. The “classic” method entails a transfer of the owner-manager’s shares to a management company that becomes the owner of the company. The management company issues new, non-participating shares to the owner-manager in exchange for his old shares. The value of the new, non-participating shares will be equivalent to the value determined for the old shares at the time of the freeze. Usually, the new, non-participating shares are controlling shares. The management company will also issue new participating shares to the designated beneficiaries of the estate. The new participating shares are the shares that will benefit from the increase in the company’s value in the future. In setting the value of his shares at the time of the freeze, the shareholder sets the amount of the capital gain that he will realize on his new, non-participating shares. The tax on this capital gain will be payable upon disposition of the shares.
Et Ux
Latin abbreviation for "et uxor" meaning "and wife".
Eviction (Éviction)
Dispossession by process of law. The act of depriving a person of the possession of something in pursuance of the judgment of a court.
Exchange rate (Taux de change)
The exchange rate is a rate at which nations' currencies are exchanged, that is, the price of one currency in terms of another. A large number of countries now use the American dollar as the standard against which to measure the value of their own currency. As the great majority of Canada's international trade and financial transactions are with the US, the value of the Canadian dollar in relation to the US dollar is of prime importance to Canada.
Exhibit (Pièce)
Physical evidence that has been tendered or filed with the court.
Expropriation (Expropriation)
Expropriation is a compulsory seizure or surrender of real estate for public interest purposes in return for an indemnity to the property's owner.
Expropriation Act (Loi sur l'expropriation)
R.S.Q., chapter E-24
Fair Market Rent (Loyer paritaire ou loyer du marché)
The market rent indicates the amount of money that a given property would command, if it were open for leasing on the market at the appraisal date.
Federal Court (Cour fédérale)
The Federal Court is Canada's national trial court which hears and decides legal disputes arising in the federal domain, including claims against the Government of Canada, civil suits in federally-regulated areas and challenges to the decisions of federal tribunals. Its authority derives primarily from the Federal Courts Act. The Federal Court was created in 1971 under the authority of s. 101 of the Constitution Act, 1867 for the "better administration of the laws of Canada". It is a successor to the Exchequer Court of Canada, established in 1875. According to the Federal Courts Act, the Court consists of a Chief Justice and 32 other judges.
Federal Court of Appeal (Cour d'appel fédérale )
The Federal Court of Appeal is a court established by Parliament in accordance with provision of section 101 of the Constitution Act, 1867, "for the better administration of the laws of Canada". As such, it is an important and integral part of the judiciary in Canada. Independence of the judiciary, impartiality of the judges and access to justice are fundamental values in the eyes of all Canadians, and represent the very essence of a free and democratic society. The Court is itinerant in that it sits and hears cases anywhere in Canada, in order to be as close as possible to the parties.
Federal Heritage Character Designation (Désignation patrimoniale fédérale)
Means the synthesis of a building's heritage values. The heritage value of Crown-owned buildings derives from many sources. These include historical associations, architectural significance and environmental importance. Government departments must arrange for the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office to evaluate all buildings 40 years of age or older, in order to determine if they should be designated as federal heritage buildings. A multidisciplinary and inter-departmental advisory committee evaluates the buildings against a set of established criteria. The FHBRO Evaluation Criteria are based on international conservation principles. Classified federal heritage building - means a federal building to which the Minister of Environment has assigned the highest heritage designation. Recognized federal heritage building - means a federal building to which the Minister of Environment has assigned the second highest heritage designation.
Financial Institution (Institution financière)
A commercial or investment bank, trust company, brokerage house, insurance company, or other institution that participates in financial transactions involving cash or financial products. The primary role of such an institution is to facilitate the financing of investments, from home mortgages to the raising of funds via the issue of debt or equity for mega-projects. It may also provide insurance, take on fiduciary responsibilities, store cash and securities for safekeeping, etc.
Fixed Rate Mortgage (Hypothèque à taux fixe)
A fixed rate mortgage is a mortgage loan where the interest rate on the note remains the same through the term of the said loan. The instalments are also fixed. The fixed rate mortgage can be open or closed type.
Floating Rate Mortgage (Hypothèque à taux variable)
A variable rate mortgage or floating rate mortgage is a mortgage loan where the interest rate varies to reflect market conditions. The interest rate will normally vary with changes to the base rate of the central bank and reflects changing costs on the credit markets. This method of variation directly linked to underlying costs benefits lenders and ensures a profit by passing the interest rate risk to the borrower. The borrower benefits from reduced margins to the underlying cost of borrowing compared to fixed or capped rate mortgages. The lender must hedge against potential interest rate changes; the borrower benefits if the interest rate falls and loses out if interest rates rise.
Flood Prone Area (Zone inondable)
Area may be occasionally flooded.
Floor Area Ratio - FAR (Coefficient d’occupation du sol - COS)
Quantitative ratio between the total floor area of a building in relation with that of the piece of land upon which it is built. The calculation of the FAR includes the floor area of all buildings erected on the piece of land.
Floor Area Ratio - FAR (Densité de construction)
The floor area ratio is a computation determined by dividing the total gross building floor area by the area of the lot on which the building is located.
Foreclosure (Saisie)
Foreclosure designates the process activated by a creditor of a party in default to seek the sale of the assets received as security, in order to be reimbursed.
Forfeiture (Saisie)
A loss of money, property, or privileges due to a breach of legal obligation, which serves as compensation for resulting losses.
Functional Obsolescence (Désuétude fonctionnelle)
Functional Obsolescence is recognized as a loss in utility or value caused by factors inherent within a building structure such as changes in construction materials and techniques, which result in excess capital costs in existing facilities; less than full use of space; or inability to expand or update the property. Changes in building designs, clear height and column spacing can also cause functional obsolescence.
Garnishee Summon (Bref de saisie-arrêt)
Official document indicating the date of a judgement to be enforced and the amount of the condemnation. The garnishee summon is issued by the Court clerk and permits the execution of a judgement on the property of a debtor.
General Meeting of Co-Owners (Assemblée générale des copropriétaires)
Composed of all the co-owners in respect of the property, present or represented. A meeting of co-owners is required at least once a year, preceded by a notice to that effect. She has the legislative power. Minutes of each meeting of co-owners must be prepared.
Giving in Payment (Dation en paiement))
Giving in payment is a contract by which a debtor transfers ownership of property to his creditor, who is willing to take it in place and payment of a sum of money or some other property due to him.
Goodwill (Achalandage)
An intangible asset which provides a competitive advantage, such as a strong brand, reputation, or high employee morale. In an acquisition, goodwill appears on the balance sheet of the acquirer in the amount by which the purchase price exceeds the net tangible assets of the acquired company
Graphic Matrix (Matrice graphique)
In municipal assessment, main component of graphic elements of the information system. It's a cartographic document representing the territory of a municipality and on which appear assessment units and registration system based on spatial reference.
Gross Domestic Product - GDP (Produit Intérieur brut - PIB)
Gross Domestic Product (prior to 1986 Gross National Product) refers to the money value of all goods and services produced in a nation during a stated period of time, usually a year. Despite its limitations GDP is the best overall measure of economic performance; it is often used to calculate changes in the welfare of a country's residents.
Guaranteed Investment Certificate - GIC (Certificat de placement garanti - CPG)
A GIC is a relatively safe investment issued by most financial institutions vouching that a sum of money has been invested and earns interest, at either a fixed or a variable rate, or based on a pre-determined formula for a given term.
Highest and Best Use (Usage le meilleur et le plus avantageux)
The reasonably probable and legal use of property, that is physically possible, appropriately supported, and financially feasible, and that results in the highest value. The highest and best use of a property is an economic concept that measures the interaction of four criteria: legal permissibility, physical possibility, financial feasibility, and maximum profitability.
In-row building - 1 side (Bâtiment en rangée - 1 côté)
Refers to a building that is comprised in an assembly of at least three buildings which are joined laterally by common walls, but which share common wall only on one side.
In-row building - more than 1 side - Townhouse (Bâtiment en rangée - plus de 1 côté - maison de ville)
Refers to a building that is comprised in an assembly of at least three buildings which are joined laterally (or multilaterally) by common walls and shares common walls on both sides.
Incentive or Bonus zoning (Zonage incitatif)
Incentive zoning or bonus zoning means a zoning in which, an incentive such as a relaxation in zoning restrictions are offered to a developer for providing public benefits like building a desired public improvement, or building in areas that requires economic development.
Income Capitalization Approach (Méthode du revenu)
The Income Capitalization Approach is based on the notion that the value of a property is indicated by the present value of future benefits. Income producing properties such as hotels traditionally use the income approach when determining their value. Thus we, believe the most appropriate method of valuing a lodging operation is to estimate the maintainable income stream representative of the earning power for the property. Since hotels are generally bought and sold on the basis of future earnings potentials, the Income Approach is considered to provide the best indication of value.
Income property ou Income producing property (Immeuble locatif)
Property which produce income to its owner.
Incorporeal Moveable or intangible (Intangible)
A moveable that is not physical in nature. Corporate intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and business methodologies), goodwill, mining rights and brand recognition are all common intangible moveables in today's marketplace.
Incurable Functional Obsolescence (Désuétude fonctionnelle incurable)
A functional obsolescence not physically or economically curable.
Incurable Physical Depreciation (Dépréciation physique incurable)
Incurable physical depreciation refers to items generally of deferred maintenance that cannot be practically or economically corrected at present. Incurable physical deterioration must be based on the reproduction or replacement cost of the entire structure after the cost to cure curable components has been deducted.
Indemnity (Indemnité)
An expressed or implied contract to compensate an individual for loss or damage.
Index of Immovables (Index des immeubles)
The index of immovables contains one land file for each registered immovable on the cadastral plan for the registration division.
Inflation (Inflation)
Inflation popularly means rising general prices, most frequently calculated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) - a measure of the cost of a basket of commodities purchased by a typical family. The rate of inflation refers to the percentage increase in the price level and is usually expressed at an annual rate.
Injunction (Injonction)
An order of the court requiring a person to not do some act or not continue to do some act that the court considers they have no right to do or, in the case of a mandatory injunction, an order that requires the person to do what the court considers they are legally required to do.
Insurance Premium (Prime d’assurance)
Amount paid to an insurance company, usually monthly or annually, in exchange for financial protection in defined circumstances.
Intangible Asset (Actif intangible)
An asset that is not physical in nature. Corporate intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies), goodwill and brand recognition are all common intangible assets in today's marketplace
Interest (Intérêt)
The cost of borrowing money; the price that a lender charges a borrower for the use of the lender's money. Interest is paid on deposits because they are, in effect, loans to the bank or other deposit-taking institutions.
Interest rate (Taux d'intérêt)
Rate charged or paid for the use of money, normally expressed as a percentage.
Interest-Bearing Current Account (Compte courant)
An interest-bearing current account is the simplest way to earn interest on cash. Nevertheless interest paid by financial institutions on such accounts is usually significantly lower than what the money market offers.
Internal Rate of Return - IRR (Taux de rendement interne - TRI)
The discount rate often used in capital budgeting that makes the net present value of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero. Generally speaking, the higher a project's internal rate of return, the more desirable it is to undertake the project.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
Standards, interpretations and the framework adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Many of the standards forming part of IFRS are known by the older name of International Accounting Standards (IAS). IAS were issued between 1973 and 2001 by the Board of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). On 1 April 2001, the new IASB took over from the IASC the responsibility for setting International Accounting Standards. During its first meeting the new Board adopted existing IAS and SICs. The IASB has continued to develop standards calling the new standards IFRS. The use of IFRS is required for Canadian publicly accountable profit-oriented enterprises for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2011.
Investment (Investissement)
Money put into a form that earns a return or profit. In essence, the money is being used to make money.
Judgment (Jugement or arrêt)
The final decision by the court in a legal proceeding; judgment and decision are often used in the place of each other; may be written or given orally in court; may also be reserved by the court at the end of the proceeding and given at a later date, usually in written form.
Study of the principles and theories on which a legal system is founded, as opposed to study of the legal system itself.
Kind of construction (Genre de construction)
General configuration of a residential type building. The kinds of construction are as follows: bungalow, split-level, modular, attic and cottage.
Land (Terrain)
Part of the real estate which support the improvements, namely: the buildings, the yard improvements and the infrastructure needed for their operation. Strictly speaking, land is also a real estate.
Land area occupancy (Implantation au sol)
Area on ground level of the horizontal projection of the building, with the exception of underground part of the building, a balcony, a porch, a terrace, a step, a cornice, an exterior stairway, an exterior ramp and an open loading platform. If one of these constructions is built on closed foundations, it must be included in this area.
Land Register (Registre foncier)
The land register contains one land book for each registration division in Québec. Each land book contains an index of immovables, a register of real rights of State resource development, a register of public service networks and immovables situated in territory without a cadastral survey and an index of names. The index of names comprises all the entries that cannot be made in the index of immovables or the other registers kept by the Land Registrar.
Land to Building Ratio - LBR (Coefficient d'emprise au sol - CES)
Quantitative ratio between the ground area occupied by a building in relation with that of the piece of land upon which it is built (in percentage).
Leasable floor area (Superficie locative)
Net area of the premises plus common area relative percentage.
Lease (Bail)
The lease is a contract by which a person, the lessor, undertakes to provide another person, the lessee, in return for a rent, with the enjoyment of a movable or immovable property for a certain time. The term of a lease is fixed or indeterminate. The lessor is bound to deliver the leased property to the lessee in a good state of repair in all respects and to provide him with peaceable enjoyment of the property throughout the term of the lease. He is also bound to warrant the lessee that the property may be used for the purpose for which it was leased and to maintain the property for that purpose throughout the term of the lease. The lessee is bound to pay the agreed rent and to use the property with prudence and diligence during the term of the lease.
Leasehold improvements (Améliorations locatives)
Improvements, installations and additions physically attached to the immovable made either by the landlord or the tenant to the leased premises. These include all permanent partitions, lighting and plumbing fixtures, carpeting and items that may be moved without damaging the rented premises, with the exception of furniture and movable partitions.
LEED (Building / Bâtiment)
The acronym LEED comes from “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design”, designation from the U.S. Green Building Council ( In Canada, the Green Building Council of Canada is the only organization able to attribute a LEED certification. There are different construction types, including “NC” for new construction, and “EB” for existing building. In addition, there are four levels of LEED certifications: certified, silver, gold and platinum, depending on the number of points obtained in each category of criteria. Building whose design, construction and use are designed to reduce harm to the environment. The use of environmentally friendly or recycled materials, solar cells, building orientation depending on the natural light, recycling of rainwater are all factors that characterize a green building.
Legal Description (Description légale)
The description of real estate (property) used to identify real estate in legal transactions.
Legal Release (Quittance)
Document authorizing relinquishment to another of a right, title or claim.
Leverage (Effet de levier)
The use of debt financing of an investment to maximize the return per dollar of equity invested
Liability (Passif)
A liability is defined as an obligation of an entity arising from past transactions or events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.
Liquidation Value (Valeur de liquidation ou valeur réalisable)
May be analyzed as either a forced liquidation or an orderly liquidation and is a commonly sought standard of value in bankruptcy proceedings. It assumes a seller who is compelled to sell after an exposure period which is less than the market-normal timeframe.
Liquidity (or Cash)
Ability to quickly convert an investment portfolio to cash with little or no loss in value.
Loan (Prêt)
An arrangement in which a lender gives money or property to a borrower, and the borrower agrees to return the property or repay the money, usually along with interest, at some future point(s) in time. Usually, there is a predetermined time for repaying a loan, and generally the lender has to bear the risk that the borrower may not repay a loan.
Location (Emplacement)
Place chosen to erect a construction or is occupied by a building.
Low-Rent Housing Program (Habitations à loyer modique - HLM)
The low-rent housing program was set up in 1969 as part of a Canada-Quebec framework agreement on public housing. Created during a housing shortage, the program aimed initially to provide municipalities with housing solutions for their citizens, many of whom were displaced by major urban renewal at the time (particularly in Montreal). Later, in the eighties and nineties, rules for granting housing were clarified and modified so that low-rent homes today are reserved for people with low incomes. As soon as the program was launched, the city of Montreal decided to take part and entrusted the OMHM with managing new homes being constructed. Tenants in this program pay a rent equalling 25% of their income, plus additional fees for electricity and, if needed, a parking space or air conditioner. The operating deficit for such housing is covered by the federal government (55%), provincial government (35%) and CMM (10%).
Latin for "we command." A writ of mandamus is an "Extraordinary Remedy" used by a superior court to require a court or tribunal of inferior jurisdiction to exercise a jurisdiction that it has or to perform a certain act. A writ of mandamus is the opposite of an order to cease and desist, or stop doing something (an injunction).
Market Value on Open Market (Valeur marchande sur le marché libre)
(iii) A reasonable turnover period. A quick or forced sale is not assumed. ln addition, a seller could receive "a desired price" if willing to wait an unduly long time to find a buyer. Neither of these cases meets the condition of market value. As of the date of appraisal, the appraiser must ascertain the typical turnover period for properties of the type being appraised. (iv) Payment consistent with the standards of behavior of the market. Typical or normal financing and payment arrangements are assumed. Usually, this will not involve an all-cash payment by the purchaser, and it does not mean especially favorable financing to attract a buyer to the seller's price.
Median Proportion (Proportion médiane)
The median proportion is an indicator of the general level of values entered on the assessment roll of a municipality. Established after the filing of the assessment roll, the median proportion is the central tendency of a distribution of individual proportions. It connects the selling prices of properties that have been subject of real estate transactions with their assessment as entered on the current assessment roll. The measured proportion is considered as representative of the general level of the roll and, therefore, should be the tendency for each of the values that are entered.
Methods Used to Estimate Cost New (Méthodes servant estimer le coût à neuf)
- Quantity Survey Method The most comprehensive and accurate method of cost estimating is the quantity survey method. A quantity survey is a computation that reflects the quantity and quality of aIl materials used and aIl categories of labour hours required. Unit costs are applied to these figures to arrive at a total cost estimate for materials and labour; then the contractor adds a margin for contingencies, overhead, and profit. - Unit-In-Place Method ln the unit-in-place, or segregated-cost, method, unit costs for various building components as installed are applied to the number of components or to linear, area, volume, or other appropriate measures of these components. Using this method, the appraiser computes a unit cost based on the actual quantity of materials used plus the labour of assembly required for each square metre of area. The costs are taken out of guides of which the most widely spread are "Marshall & Swift Valuation Service" and the "Manuel d'affaires municipales du Québec". - Comparative-Unit Method The comparative-unit method is used to derive a cost estimate in terms of dollars per unit of area or unit of volume. The method employs thknown costs of similar structures adjusted for market conditions and physical differences. Indirect costs may be included in the unit cost or computed separately. If the comparable properties and the subject property are in different construction markets, the appraiser may need to make an adjustment for location. - Cost-Index Trending Method The Cost-Index Trending Method assumes that the replacement cost is simply the original construction cost times a cost index.
Minutes (Procès-verbal)
The very purpose of a report is to highlight the deliberations of the meeting and the results of the voting and counting of votes on each resolution validly presented at the meeting of owners.
Mixed-use building (Immeuble plurifonctionnel ou à usages multiples)
Building combining premises used for different purposes.
Modular building (Construction modulaire)
A modular building is a sectional prefabricated building that consists of multiple sections called modules. "Modular" is a method of construction. The modules are six sided boxes constructed in a plant, then delivered to their intended site of use. Using a crane, the modules are set onto foundations and joined together to make a building. The modules can be placed side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked up, allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout.
Modus operandi
Latin Expression: Modus operandi (plural modi operandi) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as "method of operation". The term is used to describe someone's habits or manner of working, their method of operating or functioning. In English, it is often shortened to M.O.
Money Market (Marché monétaire)
The market in which short-term capital is raised, invested, and traded using financial instruments such as treasury bills, bankers' acceptances, commercial paper, and bonds maturing in one year or less.
Moratorium (Moratoire)
From latin expression moratorius: delay, is a term of law which means a decision granting a delay or a voluntary suspension of an action.
Mortgage or Hypothec (Hypothèque)
A hypothec (or mortgage) is a real right on a movable or immovable property made liable for the performance of an obligation. It confers on the creditor the right to follow the property into whosever hands it may be, to take possession of it or to take it in payment, or to sell it or cause it to be sold and, in that case, to have a preference upon the proceeds of the sale ranking as determined in the Civil Code. A hypothec is merely an accessory right, and subsists only as long as the obligation whose performance it secures continues to exist. The hypothecary rights conferred by a hypothec may be set up against third persons only when the hypothec is published in accordance with the Civil Code or the Book on Publication of Rights.
Municipal Courts of Quebec (Cours municipales du Québec)
There are 86 municipal courts located across Québec, established by the Act respecting municipal courts. Each court is presided over by a municipal judge. Municipal courts have limited jurisdiction in civil matters, exercised mostly in connection with municipal tax claims. They hear cases involving offences under municipal by-laws and Québec statutes such as the Highway Safety Code. Municipal courts are also authorized to hear and decide cases concerning offences under Part XXVII of the Criminal Code, which are criminal offences punishable on summary conviction.
Neighbourhood (Voisinage)
Area with distinctive characteristics susceptible to create linkages of common interests.
Net Income (Revenu net)
Remaining income to landlord after deduction from the gross income of any expenses necessary to maintain an optimal income such as: municipal and school taxes, insurance premiums and all expenses not reimbursed by the tenants for common services to the property, its surveillance and most of all its maintenance.
Nominal Value (or Face Value)
The nominal value of a loan is a relatively formal value used to calculate interest payments. In the simplest cases, it equals the amount of money the issuer received for each bond and the amount that it will repay upon redemption.
Notice of Assessment (Avis d’évaluation)
Document sent by the municipality, to the inscribed owner, in accordance with section 81 of the Act respecting municipal taxation (R.S.Q., chapter F-2.1), for the purpose to inform him of the main data concerning his property as entered on the property assessment roll.
Office Building (Immeuble de bureaux)
Building comprising premises used for professional and administrative purposes.
One Hundred Year (100) Flood (Crue séculaire)
Flood, based on an analysis of precipitation, snow melt, or a combination thereof, having a return period of 100 years on average, or having a 1% chance of occurring or being exceeded in any given year.
Open Mortgage (Hypothèque à échéance libre)
A mortgage which you can pay off, renew or refinance at any time. The interest rate for an open mortgage is usually higher than a closed mortgage rate.
Overall Capitalization Rate (OCR)
The overall capitalization rate (OCR) is defined as an income rate for the total property that reflects the relationship between a stabilized single year’s net operating income expectancy and total price or value. Implicit in the definition is that the estimated single year’s net operating income is not constant throughout the investment period.
Owner (Propriétaire)
1° The person who holds the right of ownership to an immovable, except in the case provided for in paragraph 2, 3 or 4; 2° The person who possesses an immovable in the manner described in article 922 of the Civil Code, except in the case provided for in paragraph 3 or 4; 3° The person who possesses an immovable as, institute of a substitution or emphyteutic lessee, or, where the immovable is land in the domain of the State, the person who occupies it under a promise of sale, occupation licence or location ticket; 4° The person who possesses an immovable as usufructuary otherwise than as a member of a group of usufructuaries each having a right of enjoyment periodically and successively in the immovable.
Ownership (Propriété)
Ownership is the right to use, enjoy and dispose of property fully and freely, subject to the limits and conditions for doing so determined by law. Ownership may be in various modes and dismemberments Ownership of property gives a right to what it produces and to what is united to it, naturally or artificially, from the time of union. This right is called a right of accession. The fruits and revenues of property belong to the owner, who bears the costs he incurred to produce them.
Payments in Lieu of Taxes - PILT (Paiements versés en remplacement d'impôts - PERI)
Under section 125 of the Constitution Act, 1867, the Government of Canada is exempt from local taxation. But as one of the largest property owners in Canada, its facilities can place a heavy demand on municipal services. Therefore, beginning in 1950, the Government of Canada made payments in lieu of property taxes to municipalities to share in the costs of local governments where it owns property. The payments were made under the provisions of the Municipal Grants Act, then the updated Municipal Grants Act, 1980 and more recently under the Payments in Lieu of Taxes Act, 2000.
Pedestrian street (Rue piétonne)
Street set up according to the movement of pedestrians as opposed to a temporarily blocked street. It is a specific and permanent public equipment resulting from a clear desire to favor the pedestrian in an overall urban development plan.
Per Curiam
A Latin term meaning “by the court”; sometimes the written reasons for the decision of an appeal court are not acknowledged to be the reasons of a particular judge of the court but of the court as a whole and the reasons are given under the heading “per curiam”.
Physical Depreciation (Dépréciation physique)
Physical Depreciation is a loss of value caused by such factors as wear and tear, decay, dry rot, cracks, infestation, disintegration, use in service, structural defects, and the action of the elements. It could be considered as curable or incurable.
Plaintiff (Plaignant)
The person who commences an action or “law suit”.
Planning regulations (Règlement d’urbanisme)
Ordered set of provisions with imperative or repressive character which defines the conditions for organization, planning and management of urban and rural agglomerations.
Plottage Value (Valeur d'assemblage)
Increment in the value of land resulting from assemblage of smaller plots into one ownership.
Potential Gross Income (Revenu brut potentiel)
Total potential income from property before any expenses are deducted. Predictable income considering continued occupancy of all dwellings or space.
Power of Attorney (Procuration)
A legal document that authorizes another person to act on one's behalf. A power of attorney can grant complete authority or can be limited to certain acts and/or certain periods of time.
Pre-Trial Conference (Conférence préparatoire)
A meeting between the parties and/or their lawyers and a judge to settle procedural questions and define or narrow the issues to be tried; settlement of trial issues may also occur.
Prescription is a means of acquiring or of being released by the lapse of time and according to the conditions fixed by law: prescription is called acquisitive in the first case and extinctive in the second.
Present Value (Valeur actuelle)
The present value, or value of a financial security is the present value of the expected future flows discounted at the rate of return required by investors. Value creation is the objective of any manager. This objective is reached when the investments of company yield more than the return required by providers of funds.
Presumption (Présomption)
A presumption is an inference established by law or the court from a known fact to an unknown fact. A legal presumption is one that is specially attached by law to certain facts; it exempts the person in whose favour it exists from making any other proof. A presumption concerning presumed facts is simple and may be rebutted by proof to the contrary; a presumption concerning deemed facts is absolute and irrefutable.
Prima Facie
Latin expression meaning first sight, a fact presumed to be true until disproved.
Prime Rate (Taux préférentiel)
The interest rate banks charge to their preferred credit-worthy (low-risk) customers.
Principle of Anticipation (Principe d'anticipation)
In the Appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Anticipation (Income Capitalization Approach) is that the value of a property today is the present value of the sum of anticipated future benefits.
Principle of Balance (Principe d'équilibre)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Balance (Income Capitalization Approach & Direct Comparison Approach) is that the greatest value in property will occur when the type and size of improvements and uses are proportional to each other as well as to the land.
Principle of Change (Principe d'évolution)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Change (Income Capitalization Approach) asserts that all markets are in a continual state of change. According to this principle, properties generally go through the three stages of integration (development), equilibrium (stasis), and disintegration (decline). In terms of the effects of changes on real property, ordinary physical deterioration and market demand have indicated four stages through which an improved property will pas: growth, when improvements are made and property demand expands; equilibrium or stability, when the property undergoes little change; decline, when the property requires an increasing amount of upkeep to retain its original utility while demand slackens; and revitalization or rehabilitation, which may occur if demand increases, serving to stimulate property renovation. This principle also applies to an entire neighborhood.
Principle of Conformity - Progression, Regression (Principe de conformité - progression, régression)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Conformity states that the value of a group of properties will rise to its highest possible level in an area where architectural styles are reasonably homogeneous and surrounding land uses are compatible with the use of the specified properties. It also states (principle of Progression) that the worth of an inferior property is increased by its proximity to better properties of the same use class vice-versa (principle of Regression).
Principle of Contribution (Principe de contribution)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Contribution (Income Capitalization Approach) requires an appraiser to measure the value of any improvement to a property by the amount it contributes to market value, not by its cost.
Principle of Externalities (Principe de l'environnement externe)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Externalities states that influences outside a property may have positive or negative effect on its value. Values of real properties are directly affected by government action or inaction (interest rate controls, mortgage loan guaranties…) crime rates, population density, and income level. External influences affecting value exist at regional, city and neighborhood levels.
Principle of Highest and Best Use (Principe d'utilisation optimale)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Highest and Best Use of land is defined as "that reasonable and probable use that supports the highest present value" of property.
Principle of Substitution (Principe de substitution)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Substitution (Cost, Income Capitalization & Comparison Approaches) states that a potential owner will pay no more for a property than the amount for which a property of like utility may be purchased; that a property's value tends to be set by the cost of acquiring an equally desirable substitute. The principle of substitution states that no buyer will pay more for a good than he or she would have to pay to acquire an acceptable substitute of equal utility in an equivalent amount of time.
Principle of Supply & Demand (Principe de l'offre et de la demande)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Supply & Demand refers to the ability of buyer to pay for property coupled with the relative scarcity of real estate. For any type of good or service to have value in any marketplace, it must possess four characteristics: demand, utility, transferability and scarcity. Demand is a need or desire coupled with the purchasing power to fill it, whereas utility is the ability of a good or service to fill that need. Scarcity means there must be a short supply relative to demand. Finally, a good or service must be transferable to have value to anyone other than the person possessing it. In evaluating a property's value or potential worth, attention must be given to such matters on the demand side as population growth, personal income, and the tastes and preferences of people. On the supply side, one must look at the available supply of real estate and its relative scarcity. When the supply of real estate property is limited and demand is great, the result is rising land or property value prices. Conversely, where land is abundant and there are relatively few buyers, supply and demand will be in check or balanced.
Principle of Surplus Productivity (Principe de proportion)
In the appraisal of Real Estate the principle of Surplus Productivity states that if the expenses of ownership (capital, labor and management) are deducted from net income, the remaining amount is termed surplus productivity and is considered the investor's return on the use of the land, or land rent. The expectation of profit is also expressed as the entrepreneurial incentive that motivates a developer to assume the risks involved with taking on a project.
Private Parts (Parties privatives)
The various portions of the building owned by a specific co-owner, and that has the exclusive use. Although the owner of a private unit can only be expected to be the master at home, this freedom is limited by the provisions of the declaration of co-ownership and the destination of the said building.
Private Writing or Agreement (Acte sous seing privé)
A private writing is a writing setting forth a juridical act and bearing the signature of the parties; it is not subject to any other formality. Document signed by the parties without the intervention of a public officer.
Pro bono
A Latin term meaning “for the good”; used to describe a lawyer’s services that are provided free of charge.
Pro Rata
Latin expression meaning in proportion; according to a certain percentage or proportion of a whole.
Property tax (Taxe foncière)
A tax or surtax that a local municipality or a school board imposes on an immovable or in respect of the immovable if the tax or surtax is imposed regardless of use.
Property Title (Titre de propriété)
A freehold title gives the holder full and exclusive ownership of land and buildings for an indefinite period of time.
A prospectus is a legal document that institutions and businesses use to describe the securities they are offering for participants and buyers. A prospectus commonly provides investors with material information about mutual funds, stocks, bonds and other investments, such as a description of the company's business, financial statements, biographies of officers and directors, detailed information about their compensation, any litigation that is taking place, a list of material properties and any other material information.
Publication of Rights (Publicité des droits)
The publication of rights is effected by their registration in the register of personal and movable real rights or in the land register, unless some other mode is expressly permitted by law. Registration benefits the persons whose rights are thereby published. The acquisition, creation, recognition, modification, transmission or extinction of an immovable real right requires publication.
Quantum meruit
Latin expression: Quantum meruit meaning "as much as is deserved" the actual value of services performed.
Quebec Bar (Barreau du Québec)
Lawyers practiced their profession in Québec well before the constitution of the Bar of Lower-Canada by a law passed on May 30, 1849 (the Upper-Canada Bar had obtained its charter in 1797). In New France, justice was rendered without the assistance of barristers, and from 1765, Governor James Murray bestowed a lawyer's authority on three notaries and a shopkeeper. The Québec community of lawyers, precursor to the bar, was created in 1779. This society demonstrated loyalty in its concern for affirming the independence of political and judicial powers, and in its will to improve the competence and morality of its members. The law of 1849 limited the practice of law to members of the bar who had to ensure that they were capable of fulfilling the duties with honour and integrity. To this end, the bar could adopt rules for the admission and discipline of its members. In the early days, the bar was made up of three districts (Montréal, Québec, Trois-Rivières), which held the essentials of power. The number of districts increased progressively (today there are 15 sections), and in 1967, a reform of the bar's structure centralized the majority of powers, which until then had been carried out by the sections. This reform enabled the bar to set up a permanent secretariat, a Bureau of Trustees, a centralized disciplinary process, and to found a professional school.
Quebec Court of Appeal (Cour d'appel du Québec)
The Court of Appeal is the general appeal court for Québec and as such, is the highest court in Québec. It is made up of 20 judges appointed by the Government of Canada. It sits in the cities of Québec and Montréal. In civil matters, the Court hears appeals from final judgments of the Superior Court and the Court of Québec where the amount in dispute is $50,000 or more.
Quebec Superior Court (Cour supérieure du Québec)
The Superior Court has jurisdiction throughout Québec and sits in all the judicial districts. It is made up of 144 judges, including a chief judge, a senior associate chief judge and an associate chief judge, all appointed by the federal government. In civil matters, the Superior Court generally hears cases in first instance where the amount at issue is at least $70,000. It has exclusive jurisdiction in family matters such as divorce, support, and child custody. Proceedings are heard in private with the parties’ names remaining confidential. It also hears applications regarding class actions and probate (homologation) of wills. The Superior Court may issue injunctions to stop certain activities (for example, it can stop construction work on property that does not belong to the person performing the work).
A quorum is constituted by a minimum number of co-owners representing a majority of votes at the meeting, as indicated in the notice. A quorum is expressed in terms of votes and not in terms of number of co-owners present or represented. In the absence of quorum, after a certain time, the meeting is adjourned to another date. It is essential to have a quorum for that meeting takes place.
Rainwater (Eaux pluviales)
Water that has fallen as rain and collected on buildings or structures.
Rate (Taux)
A rate is a relationship between two quantities, often expressed as a percentage.
One value divided by another. The result is representative of the value of one quantity in terms of the other.
Raw land or Unserviced land (Terrain nu ou Terrain non viabilisé)
Land in its natural state, generally unsubdivided, which has not been subject of a subdivision, on which no development works has been carried out to render it usable. This notion is the opposite of "serviced land". We will take care not to confuse bare land and vacant land, the latter term referring to a generally subdivided land, improved or not.
Recession (Récession)
Recession, technically, 2 or more successive quarters of declines in real Gross Domestic Product, calculated by adjusting for price changes.
Reference or File Number (Numéro matricule)
In municipal assessment, geographical coordinates of an assessment unit based on the registration system prescribed by the regulation. The reference number is the numerical designation of each assessment unit and the reference to any related documents.
Regional County Municipality - RCM (Municipalité régionale de comté - MRC)
The regional county municipality (RCM) is an administrative entity used in the Canadian province of Quebec to designate county-like political and geographic units. In most cases, they are also census divisions. RCM are a supralocal type of "Regional Municipality" and are still commonly referred to as counties. This double level of competence system of municipal government was rearranged in 1979, with the government policy of reorganization of Quebec counties.
Remaining Economic Life Span (Vie économique restante)
Period of time from the date of appraisal until the expiration of the economic life span of the construction.
Rental Value (Valeur locative)
Income that can reasonably be expected to have in exchange of the right of use of a real estate. Generally, the competition establishes the rental value.
Replacement Cost (Coût de remplacement)
Cost to construct, at current prices, a building with utility equivalent to the building being appraised, using modern materials and current standards, design and layout."
Reproduction Cost (Coût de reproduction)
Cost to construct, at current prices, an exact duplicate or replica of the building being appraised, using the same materials, construction standards, design, layout and quality of workmanship, and embodying all the deficiencies, superadequacies, and obsolescence of the subject building.
Reserve Fund (Fonds de prévoyance)
Reserve Fund Study completed to provide financial planning advice. The consulting service should consider the stated policies in the Declaration of Co-Ownership defining those components to be covered by the study and incorporate a comprehensive benchmark analysis including life cycle analysis, current and future rep1lacement costs and future reserve fund accumulations. The Study should provide comments on any apparent deficiency in the reserve fund account or in future reserve fund accumulation, along with a cash flow model covering an appropriate time frame.
Residual or Salvage Value (Valeur résiduelle)
Residual value is the expected value of the assets at the end of their life cycle.
Respondent (Intimé)
The person who is in response to or in opposition to an Application made by the Applicant; also a person who is in response to or in opposition to an appeal taken by an Appellant.
Retained Earnings (Bénéfices non répartis)
Retained earnings refers to the portion of net income which is retained by the corporation rather than distributed to its owners as dividends. Similarly, if the corporation takes a loss, then that loss is retained and called variously retained losses, accumulated losses or accumulated deficit. Retained earnings and losses are cumulative from year to year with losses offsetting earnings.
Right of First Refusal (Droit de premier refus)
A provision in an agreement that requires the owner of a property to give another party the first opportunity to purchase or lease the property before he or she offers it for sale or lease to others.
Right of Ownership (Droit de propriété)
Ownership is the right to use, enjoy and dispose of property fully and freely, subject to the limits and conditions for doing so determined by law. Ownership may be in various modes and dismemberments
Right of Way (Servitude de passage)
An easement, a privilege to pass over the land of another, whereby the holder of the easement acquires only a reasonable and usual enjoyment of the property and the owner of the land retains the benefits and privileges of ownership consistent with the easement.
Sale-Lease-back (Cession-bail)
In a sale-leaseback transaction, one of the off-balance sheet financing techniques, a seller deeds property to a buyer for a consideration and the buyer simultaneously leases the property back to the seller.
Security Deposit (Dépôt de garantie)
A landlord may request that a tenant pay a security deposit at the beginning of a tenancy. The security deposit is intended to compensate a landlord for: - Damage caused by the tenant beyond normal wear and tear, - Any unpaid rent or bills, and - Any costs to the landlord if the tenant vacates without proper notice.
Semi-detached building (Bâtiment jumelé)
Refers to a building with a common wall on one of its sides (side, front or rear).
Serviced land (Terrain viabilisé)
Subdivided site on which development works has been carried out (earthworks, roads, watersupply systems, sewers, fences, landscaping, etc.) to render it usable. When land has all the utilities (roads, watersupply, sewer services and electricity, it refers to fully serviced land or plot with all services.
Servient Tenement (Fonds servant)
Where an easement is appurtenant, it will typically require the existence of two parcels of land, known as tenements. The dominant tenement is the land which benefits from an easement, while the servient tenement is the one which bears the burden of the easement.
Servitude or Easement (Servitude)
Servitude is a charge imposed on an immovable, the servient land, in favour of another immovable, the dominant land, belonging to a different owner. Under the charge the owner of the servient land is required to tolerate certain acts of use by the owner of the dominant land or himself abstain from exercising certain rights inherent in ownership. Servitudes are either apparent or unapparent. A servitude is apparent if it is manifested by an external sign; otherwise it is unapparent. Servitude extends to all that is necessary for its exercise.
Share or Fraction in Property (Quote-part)
Any property held in divided co-ownership is divided into “fractions” or shares. The fraction or share represents the right of the owner in the property. The portion of each owner corresponding to its share of undivided ownership in the common elements and determines, at the same time, the number of votes it has at general meetings of co-owners. The relative value of the fraction is also used to calculate the contribution of each of the co-owners for expenses arising from the co-ownership and operation of the property and the reserve fund.
Shareholding (Actionnariat)
Shareholding designates both the shareholders of a company and the share classes (common, preferred, voting, and controlling).
Shoreline protection (Protection des rives)
Shoreline protection is defined as those response activities that take place at or near the shoreline, rather than on open water, to protect the shore zone from becoming oiled or to protect vulnerable shore-zone resources that are at risk.
Sine die
A Latin term meaning “without day”; where a court proceeding is adjourned “sine die” there is no specific date set for when the proceeding will be back before the court; often used in civil proceedings where the court grants an adjournment “sine die” and it is the responsibility of the parties to bring the matter back to court at a date and time that is agreeable to the parties.
Split-Level Building (Construction à niveaux décalés)
A building with multiple levels having its living room area on the main floor, with stairs leading upward to the bedrooms approximately a half-story higher; and other stairs leading downward, a half-story lower, to the kitchen and/or dining areas and to a laundry or utility room.
Standardized Value (Valeur uniformisée)
Standardized property value that constitutes the result obtained by multiplying the assessment value by the “comparative factor” to bring a comparable basis the assessments originating from different roles.
Statement of Defence (Défense)
The pleading in response or defence to the Statement of Claim in civil law proceedings where the Defendant alleges the facts relied upon in defence of the claim made in the action or “law suit”.
Straight Capitalization (Actualisation simple)
V = NOI/OCR Where: V = Value; NOI = Net Operating Income and OCR = Overall Capitalization Rate
Sublease (Sous-location)
Lease from one tenant (lessee) to another (called subtenant or sublessee). The agreement between the landlord (the lessor) and the first lessee remains in force and governs the terms of the sublease. Also called sublet.
Submission (Plaidoirie)
Similar to argument; the address or presentation of the parties to the court at the end of a particular proceeding, after the evidence has been presented and before the court is to make its decision; an opportunity for the parties to summarize the issues, evidence and law and to persuade the court to make a decision in their favour.
A legal order addressed to a person to appear before a tribunal.
Subrogation (Subrogation)
The substitution of one person in the place of another with reference to a lawful claim, demand, obligation or legal right.
Suburb (Banlieue)
Collectively, the suburbs are all of the continuous urbanization that extends beyond the central city (all of the urban area except the historical core municipality and other adjacent historical municipalities). A specific suburb can be an individual municipality or community in the suburbs.
Superficies (Propriété superficiaire)
Superficies is ownership of the constructions, works or plantations situated on an immovable belonging to another person, the owner of the subsoil. Superficies results from division of the object of the right of ownership of an immovable, transfer of the right of accession or renunciation of the benefit of accession. The right of the superficiary to use the subsoil is governed by an agreement. Failing agreement, the subsoil is charged with the servitudes necessary for the exercise of the right. These servitudes are extinguished upon termination of the right. The superficiary and the owner of the subsoil each bear the charges encumbering what constitutes the object of their respective rights of ownership. Superficies may be perpetual, but a term may be fixed by the agreement establishing its conditions.
Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada)
The Supreme Court of Canada is Canada's final court of appeal, the last judicial resort for all litigants, whether individuals or governments. Its jurisdiction embraces both the civil law of the province of Quebec and the common law of the other provinces and territories. The Supreme Court of Canada stands at the apex of the Canadian judicial system. The Canadian courts may be seen as a pyramid, with a broad base formed by the provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial and territorial governments. At the next level, there are the provinces' and territories' superior courts whose judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to the next level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal. As well, there are the Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Court, the Tax Court of Canada and the Court Martial Appeal Court.
Syndicate or Owners’ Association (Syndicat de copropriété)
The syndicate ensures that the property is preserved, maintained and administered. It is created when condominium ownership is established. The board of directors is the administrative arm of the syndicate. The directors adopt the budget for the condominium property. The general meeting of co-owners examines issues involving all the condominium owners. Each owner is entitled to vote at this meeting, according to the number of votes he or she has.
Tangible Asset (Actif tangible)
An asset that has a physical form such as machinery, buildings and land.
Tax (Taxe or Impôt)
Tax is an enforced contribution exacted pursuant to legislative authority in order to raise revenue for a public purpose.
Term (Terme)
The length of time during which a mortgage loan is in force. The term could vary from a few months to many years.
Through Lot (Terrain traversant)
A lot, with the exception of a corner lot, that has frontage on two public streets.
Topography (Topographie)
Nature of the surface of land; topography may be level, rolling, mountainous. Variation in earth's surface.
Tract of land (Terre)
A specified or limited but very large area of land. Piece of land for future development.
Transferor or Transferee (Cédant ou cessionnaire)
The expressions "transferor" and "transferee" include their heirs, successors, assigns, executors and administrators and any other legal representative.
Treasury Bill (Bon du trésor)
A short-term debt instrument issued by a government in large denominations and sold at a discount. The difference between the issue price of the treasury bill and its par value (i.e., the principal amount stated on the face of the bill and redeemable at maturity) represents the investor's return in lieu of interest.
Tribunal administratif du Québec (TAQ)
The Tribunal administratif du Québec was established under the Act respecting administrative justice. It has jurisdiction to make determinations in respect of proceedings brought against administrative decisions rendered by public authorities such as government departments, boards, commissions, municipalities, health care establishments, etc. The Tribunal consists of four divisions. The Social Affairs Division is chiefly responsible for proceedings in such matters as income security, welfare and family allowances, the protection of patients with mental illnesses, health and social services, immigration, pension plans and certain compensation plans. The Immovable Property Division hears cases involving municipal property evaluations, rental value, and compensation following expropriation. The Territory and Environment Division hears proceedings relating to the preservation of agricultural land and environmental protection. Last, the Economic Affairs Division rules on proceedings relating to permits and authorizations under various economic, industrial, professional or commercial Acts.
Trust (Fiducie)
A trust results from an act whereby a person, the settlor, transfers property from his patrimony to another patrimony constituted by him which he appropriates to a particular purpose and which a trustee undertakes, by his acceptance, to hold and administer. The trust patrimony, consisting of the property transferred in trust, constitutes a patrimony by appropriation, autonomous and distinct from that of the settlor, trustee or beneficiary and in which none of them has any real right.
Undivided Co-Ownership (Copropriété indivise)
The law provides for two types of co-ownership: divided and undivided. A property of this type belongs to several individuals, called undivided co-owners. No one owner owns an exclusive portion of the property; rather, they each own a fraction. Undivided co-ownership of a property begins informally when several persons, the undivided co-owners, acquire ownership of the same property. However, where an immovable is involved, it is in the interests of the undivided co-owners to draw up and register a formal agreement among themselves. The indivision agreement must be published to be enforceable against third persons.
Unit of Assessment (Unité d'évaluation)
Immovable or group of immovables entered on the roll under a single file number. See section 34 of Act respecting municipal taxation.
Urban sprawl (Étalement urbain)
Uncontrolled expansion of constructed zones at the outskirt of an urban space.
Use of Premises (Jouissance des lieux)
Right of the tenant or landlord to use the premises without being disturbed.
Useful life (Vie utile)
The period during which a construction is used for the end to which it was indented until its decommissioning, closure or its demolition.
Usufruct (Usufruit)
Usufruct is the right of use and enjoyment, for a certain time, of property owned by another as one's own, subject to the obligation of preserving its substance. Usufruct, like use, servitude and emphyteusis are dismemberments of the right of ownership and are real rights.
Value as a going concern (Valeur en continuité d'opération)
The amount for which an asset would sell following a transaction taking place in all fairness between parties willing and knowledgeable of the facts. The asset is assessed on the assumption that the site is suitable to maintain the present use as part of a business operating according to the convention of the company (going concern) or a similar utility requiring only minor modifications. This concept of value is not an estimate of the value that the business would sell for on the open market. Here again, the delay of sale must be reasonably sufficient to find a purchaser. Implicitly this definition presupposes a sale at a given date and/or transfer of securities from the seller to the purchaser according to the following terms and conditions: the seller and the purchaser are typically motivated; The parties are well informed or well advised; Each party is according to what it sees for his best interests; The settlement is made in cash or equivalent; Financing that normally applies to this type of property can be obtained under normal conditions on the market at the specified date. The selling price represents a proper consideration of the sold property and does not include special and/or conditional funding, costs of services, costs or credits contracted in the transaction. This value represents the opinion of the appraiser on an item of an effective utility for the period of its economic remaining lifespan. Even if depreciation increases with time, the time factor is not the sole factor controlling it; It is a contrast with the accounting depreciation.
Value of convenience or special value to the expropriated party (Valeur de convenance ou valeur spéciale à l’exproprié)
The value of convenience or the special value to the expropriated party is the value of a property or a right to its owner-user. It is a value that generally exceeds the market value, insofar as it contains the latter, plus a particular value for the owner-user. We wll generally talk of special value to the expropriated party when this value can be an economic advantage to the expropriated party.
Vested or Acquired Right (Droit acquis)
Law which having entered in a patrimony under a law or under old rules, cannot be challenged by the application of a new law or new rules. Acquired right in respect of a site, a construction, a use or a sign permits to maintain and enjoy a factual situation even if this situation is no longer consistent with the new planning regulation. Recognition of acquired right is based on a principle which states that, in general, laws and regulations are not retroactive, that is to say they cannot undermine existing situations before their entry into force, unless specified by law.
Waterworks system (Réseau d’adduction et de distribution d’eau)
All of the works (pipes, channels, reservoirs, pumps, etc.) intended for the collection, transport and distribution of water within an urban or rural agglomeration.
Wetlands (Terres humides)
Lands that are seasonally or permanently covered by shallow water, as well as lands where the water table is close to or at the surface. In either case the presence of abundant water has caused the formation of hydric soils and has favoured the dominance of either hydrophytic plants or water tolerant plants. The four major types of wetlands are swamps, marshes, bogs and fens.
Wildlife Preserve (Réserve faunique)
A wildlife preserve is an area of land or water set aside from development or recreational use to protect wildlife and their habitats. Wildlife preserves are found, under extremely varied conditions, in virtually every part of the world.
Will (Testament)
The legal declaration of a person's mind as to the manner in which he would have his property or estate disposed of after his death; the written instrument, legally executed, by which a person makes disposition of his estate, to take effect after his death.
Writ (Bref)
An order issued by the court requiring the performance of a specified act or the giving of authority to have it done.
Yard Setback (Marge de recul)
Vacant horizontal band space (undeveloped) perpendicularly calculated between the front, rear and sides of a building or structure and the lot line.
Yield (rendement)
The income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property usually expressed in percentage.
Zoning (Zonage)
Act to define the land uses and to map them, to delineate areas subject to the same planning regulations, particularly with the same building regulations.
Zoning By-Law (Règlement de zonage)

Regulations governing the use of the land and the types of constructions in each designated area. In the public interest, it belongs to the municipality to divide its territory into areas. This allows to specify the permitted uses and the required standards in order to control the usage in each zone.

The first zoning attempts were made in San Francisco around 1885 to prohibit laundry shops. These regulations were found to be valid by the Courts despite their obvious discriminatory character against Chinese immigrants.

Zoning Plan (Plan de zonage)
Map showing the allocation of a territory designated in “zones” assigned to a defined occupation or use of land. It is accompanied by texts of the zoning by-law.
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